Bell Beaker Settlement of Europe: The Bell Beaker Phenomenon from a Domestic Perspective: 8: Gibson, Alex M.: Amazon.sg: Books The Bell Beaker phenomenon in the Iberian Peninsula defines the late phase of the local Chalcolithic and even intrudes in the earliest centuries of the Bronze Age. The abundance of different cultural elements that persisted towards the end of the Bronze Age, show a clear continuity of different regional and intrusive traditions. The local fine-ware pottery of Beaker derivation reveal links with other Beaker regions in western Europe, most specifically the Veluwe group at the Lower Rhine. A theory of cultural contact de-emphasizing population movement was presented by Colin Burgess and Stephen Shennan in the mid-1970s.[27]. The Beaker group in northern Jutland forms an integrated part of the western European Beaker Culture, while western Jutland provided a link between the Lower Rhine area and northern Jutland. Beakers arrived in Ireland around 2500 BC and fell out of use around 1700 BC. In Denmark, large areas of forested land were cleared to be used for pasture and the growing of cereals during the Single Grave culture and in the Late Neolithic Period. The Bell Beaker Phenomenon and the Interaction Spheres of the EBA East Mediterranean: Similarities and differences By Lorenz Rahmstorf Publisher: Bibracte, Centre archéologique européen Cord-impressed type of Beaker pottery, such as the "All Over Corded". An overview of Bell Beaker house plans in the Netherlands By J.P. Kleijne and E. Drenth17. Margaret Cox and Simon Mays sum up the position: "Although it can hardly be said that craniometric data provide an unequivocal answer to the problem of the Beaker folk, the balance of the evidence would at present seem to favour a migration hypothesis."[37]. (2015) analyzed the remains of a later Bell Beaker male skeleton from Quedlinburg, Germany, dated to 2296–2206 BC. [34] They were used as status display amongst disparate elites. [50] Peninsular corded Bell Beakers are usually found in coastal or near coastal regions in three main regions: the western Pyrenees, the lower Ebro and adjacent east coast, and the northwest (Galicia and northern Portugal). The Bell Beaker pottery is known to have had a very wide distribution. Some New from MSH Mondes PRO . Oxford: Oxbow. These are associated with the Bronze Age and/or with the Bell Beaker phenomena (25). European Journal of Archaeology 2001 4: 3, 418-419 Download Citation. [66] This middle Bell Beaker Culture is the main period when almost all the cemeteries in Southern Germany begin. 99 Bell Beaker pottery spread across western and central Europe beginning around 2750 100 BCE before disappearing between 2200–1800 BCE. Close analysis of the bronze tools associated with beaker use suggests an early Iberian source for the copper, followed subsequently by Central European and Bohemian ores. [64] Research in N northern Poland shifted the north-eastern frontier of this complex to the western parts of the Baltic with the adjacent Northern European plain. In eastern Denmark and Scania one-person graves occur primarily in flat grave cemeteries. However, indications of their use of stream sediment copper, low in traces of lead and arsenic, and Beaker finds connected to mining and metalworking at Ross Island, County Kerry, provide an escape to such doubts. Regarding the Bell Beaker phenomenon, the current tendency is to focus attention on analysis of the variations in its characteristics in different regions, its relationships with local cultures and its diverse possible significations and social effects. [61] More recent extensive DNA evidence, however, suggests a significant replacement of earlier populations. However, the same study found that the further dissemination of the mature Beaker complex was very strongly linked to migration. [43], Allentoft et al. Beyond Stonehenge: Essays on the Bronze Age in honour of Colin Burgess. The mechanism of its expansion is a topic of long-standing debate, with support for both cultural diffusion and human migration. The two main international bell beaker styles are: the All Over Ornamented (AOO), patterned all over with impressions, of which a subset is the All Over Corded (AOC), patterned with cord-impressions, and the Maritime type, decorated with bands filled with impressions made with a comb or cord. Previously some archaeologists considered the Bell-beaker people to have lived only within a limited territory of the Carpathian Basin and for a short time, without mixing with the local population. A short-lived first occupation of pre-Bell Beaker building phase about 3000 BC revealed the remains of a tower, some pavings, and structures for burning. For over a century, archaeologists have tried to establish whether the spread of “Beaker” pottery represented a large-scale migration of people or was simply due to the spread of new ideas. A series of copper mines from here are the earliest known in Ireland, starting from around 2500 BC (O'Brien 2004). [4][22] Here, the local sulpharsenide ores were smelted to produce the first copper axes used in Britain and Ireland. An example might be as part of a prestige cult related to the production and consumption of beer, or trading links such as those demonstrated by finds made along the seaways of Atlantic Europe. Stephen Shennan interpreted the artefacts as belonging to a mobile cultural elite imposing itself over the indigenous substrate populations. In general, Late Neolithic house building styles were shared over large areas of northern and central Europe. The enclave established in southern Brittany was linked closely to the riverine and landward route, via the Loire, and across the Gâtinais Valley to the Seine Valley, and thence to the lower Rhine. The pattern is clearest in Britain, where the new study reports 155 samples ranging in age from between about 6,000 and 3,000 years ago, a period and place from which there was previously no published data. [9] Turek sees late Neolithic precursors in northern Africa, arguing the Maritime style emerged as a result of seaborne contacts between Iberia and Morocco in the first half of the third millennium BC. In addition, two thirds of copper artefacts from Britain also display the same chemical and isotopic signature, strongly suggesting that Irish copper was a major export to Britain. In the Iberian Peninsula, this AOC type was traditionally restricted to half a dozen scattered sites in the western Pyrenees, the lower Ebro, and the Spanish east coast; especially a vessel at Filomena at Villarreal, Castellón (Spain), has parallels with the decoration. The vast Bell Beaker trade network can be divided in five main archeological cultures, each with its own distinctive type of Beaker pottery: The diffusion of Beaker pottery across central and western Europe. pp. [86], Beaker culture introduces the practice of burial in single graves, suggesting an Earlier Bronze Age social organisation of family groups. 5: Europa e Italia protostorica – Curcio editore, pp. [39] In accordance with anthropological evidence, it has been concluded the Bell Beakers intruded in an already established form the southern part of Germany as much as the East Group area.[26]. Bell Beaker pottery spread across western and central Europe beginning around 2750 BCE before disappearing between 2200-1800 BCE. By this time, the Rhine was on the western edge of the vast Corded Ware zone (c.3100-2350 BC), forming a contact zone with the Bell Beaker culture. [38] Subsequent studies, such as one concerning the Carpathian Basin,[39] and a non-metrical analysis of skeletons in central-southern Germany,[40] have also identified marked typological differences with the pre-Beaker inhabitants. Beaker domestic architecture in Britain and Ireland By Alex M. Gibson18. In Denmark, this mode of building houses is clearly rooted in a Middle Neolithic tradition. [4] The same technologies were used in the Tagus region and in the west and south of France. As for the settlements and monuments within the Iberian context, Beaker pottery is generally found in association with local Chalcolithic material and appears most of all as an "intrusion" from the third millennium in burial monuments whose origin may go back to the fourth or fifth millennia BC. [71] Classification of pottery in Ireland and Britain has distinguished a total of seven intrusive[72] beaker groups originating from the continent and three groups of purely insular character having evolved from them. In the Netherlands, the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker phenomenon (c. 2400–1900 BC) is wellknown for its burial monuments which feature prominently in debates concerning pottery typochronology, continuity with the preceding Corded Ware Phenomenon (c. 2800–2400 BC) and funerary landscape developments. Bell Beaker related material has now been uncovered in a line from the Baltic Sea down to the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea, including the modern states comprising Belarus, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Albania, North Macedonia and parts of Greece.[65]. A third building phase followed directly and lasted to about 1300 BC, after which the site was covered with layers of stone and clay, apparently deliberately, and abandoned. [118][119][120][121][122] The connection with the East Group Beakers of Únětice had intensified considerably in LN II, thus triggering a new social transformation and innovations in metallurgy that would announce the actual beginning of the Northern Bronze Age.[123]. Price et al. Later, other characteristic regional styles developed. However, in Spain and Portugal, all female lineages are in clear continuity with earlier Neolithic samples. Bell Beaker pottery has been found in Mallorca and Formentera, but has not been observed in Menorca or Ibiza. Its spread has been one of the central questions of the migrationism vs. diffusionism debate in 20th-century archaeology, variously described as due to migration, possibly of small groups of warriors, craftsmen or traders, or due to the diffusion of ideas and object exchange.[24]. The early studies on the Beakers which were based on the analysis of their skeletal remains, were craniometric. Find out the latest studies and discuss them on the Ancient DNA Forum. Late Copper Age 1 was defined in southern Germany by the connection of the late Cham Culture, Globular Amphora culture, and the older Corded Ware Culture of "beaker group 1" that is also referred to as Horizon A or Step A. Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature25738. [42], Haak et al. Bell Beaker people took advantage of transport by sea and rivers, creating a cultural spread extending from Ireland to the Carpathian Basin and south along the Atlantic coast and along the Rhône valley to Portugal, North Africa, and Sicily, even penetrating northern and central Italy. This article summarizes and discusses recent research into the Danish Bell Beaker phenomenon c.2350-1950 BC. [91] A few burials seem to indicate social status, though in other contexts an emphasis to special skills is more likely.[92]. ; for the first time gold items appeared on the island (collier of the Tomb of Bingia 'e Monti, Gonnostramatza). The bell-shaped vases appear in these areas of central and northern Italy as "foreign elements" integrated in the pre-existing Remedello and Rinaldone cultures. The name Glockenbecher was coined for its distinctive style of beakers by Paul Reinecke in 1900. Sardinia has been in contact with extra-insular communities in Corsica, Tuscany, Liguria and Provence since the Stone Age. Under the "pots, not people" theory, the Beaker culture is seen as a 'package' of knowledge (including religious beliefs, as well as methods of copper, bronze, and gold working) and artefacts (including copper daggers, v-perforated buttons, and stone wrist-guards) adopted and adapted by the indigenous peoples of Europe to varying degrees. 7 years ago. Some New Approaches to The Bell Beaker ` Phenomenon'. It has been suggested as a candidate for an early Indo-European culture, or as the origin of the Vasconic substrate. Elsewhere there was a discontinuity. One of the most puzzling archaeological phenomena of prehistoric Europe is the widespread appearance of a specific form of ceramic vessel, a decorated, thin-walled, handleless drinking cup known as a bell beaker, throughout western and central continental Europe and the British Isles during the second half of the third millennium b.c. Distribution of the mature Bell Beaker culture, Connections with other parts of Beaker culture, Jeunesse, C. 2014. (2017) found only "limited genetic affinity" between individuals associated with the Beaker complex in Iberia and in Central Europe, suggesting that migration played a limited role in its early spread. The oldest radiocarbon dates associated with Beaker pot - tery are from around 2750 bc in Atlantic Iberia 6, which has been inter- Its focus is on the meaning of material culture here represented by Bell Beakers and bifacial lanceolate flint daggers, both seen from a social perspective. In Porto Torrão, at inner Alentejo (southern Portugal), a similar vessel was found having a date ultimately corrected to around 2823–2658 BC. Of these 400 individuals, 226 are specifically attributed to the Bell Beaker phenomenon. - The extend of the Bell Beaker matches the map of R1b-L11 with uncanny precision. [10], British and American archaeology since the 1960s have been sceptical about prehistoric migration in general, so the idea of "Bell Beaker Folk" lost ground. [52] Some evidence exists of all-corded pottery in Mallorca, generally considered the most ancient Bell Beaker pottery, possibly indicating an even earlier Beaker settlement about 2700 BC. In east central Sweden and western Sweden, barbed wire decoration characterised the period 2460–1990 BC, linked to another Beaker derivation of northwestern Europe. 237–254. A southern move led to the Mediterranean where 'enclaves' were established in south-western Spain and southern France around the Golfe du Lion and into the Po Valley in Italy, probably via ancient western Alpine trade routes used to distribute jadeite axes. [citation needed]. Arising from around 2800 BC, it lasted in Britain until as late as 1800 BC[3][4] but in continental Europe only until 2300 BC, when it was succeeded by the Unetice culture. Beakers are found in large numbers in Ireland, and the technical innovation of ring-built pottery indicates that the makers were also present. 1). [note 1] In contrast to the early Bell Beaker preference for the dagger and bow, the favourite weapon in the Carpathian Basin during the first half of the third millennium was the shaft-hole axe. Danish Beakers are contemporary with the earliest Early Bronze Age (EBA) of the East Group of Bell Beakers in central Europe, and with the floruit of Beaker cultures of the West Group in western Europe. The same lack of typical Beaker association applies to the about thirty found stone battle axes. Coincides with the progressive disappearance of the Megalithic culture in the British Isles, Belgium, France and northern Italy. Some New Approaches to The Bell Beaker ` Phenomenon'. These are associated with the Bronze Age and/or with the Bell Beaker phenomena (25). On the male side, some R1b men do show up among the Neolithic I2a and G2a, showing that a limited migration from central Europe did occur. [39] The modern view is that the Bell Beaker people, far from being the "warlike invaders" as once described by Gordon Childe (1940), added rather than replaced local late Neolithic traditions into a cultural package and as such did not always and evenly abandon all local traditions. Jocelyne Desideri examined the teeth in skeletons from Bell Beaker sites in Northern Spain, Southern France, Switzerland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. A new study , "The Beaker Phenomenon, And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest Europe" has been published on BioRxyv. One non-local Bell Beaker sherd, however, belonging to the upper part of a beaker with a curved neck and thin walls, was found at the bedrock base of this second phase. – Duh, obvious, right? Noting the distribution of Beakers was highest in areas of transport routes, including fording sites, river valleys and mountain passes, Beaker 'folk' were suggested to be originally bronze traders, who subsequently settled within local Neolithic or early Chalcolithic cultures, creating local styles. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Fig. The most famous site in Britain from this period is Stonehenge, which had its Neolithic form elaborated extensively. The Bell Beaker settlements are still little known, and have proved remarkably difficult for archaeologists to identify. The study found that the Bell Beakers and people of the Unetice culture had less ancestry from the Yamnaya culture than from the earlier Corded Ware culture. [26], The burial ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites appears to be intrusive to Western Europe, from Central Europe. 5. But they admit that they can't find evidence in their ancient DNA data that its expansion across much of the rest of Europe was accompanied by significant gene flow from Iberia, and thus driven by migration. [33] Beer and mead content have been identified from certain examples. From around 2750 to 2500 bc, Bell Beaker pottery became widespread across western and central Europe, before it disappeared between 2200 and 1800 bc. Cremation was also common. For over a century, archaeologists have tried to establish whether the spread of “Beaker” pottery represented a large-scale migration of people or was simply due to the spread of new ideas. [17][note 2], A review in 2014 revealed that single burial, communal burial, and reuse of Neolithic burial sites are found throughout the Bell Beaker zone. This volume concentrates on the domestic sphere – assemblage composition, domestic structures (how they differ, if at all, from previous types, legacies), and provides the first pan-European synthesis of its kind. Bell Beaker Settlement of Europe: The Bell Beaker Phenomenon from a Domestic Perspective: 8 (Prehistoric Society Research Papers) at AbeBooks.co.uk - ISBN 10: 1789251249 - ISBN 13: 9781789251241 - Oxbow Books - 2019 - Hardcover The Bell Beaker Phenomenon, its Echoes and Traditions in Europe and Beyond » The term ‘Bell Beaker’ was introduced by late-nineteenth- and early- twentieth-century archaeologists to refer to a distinctive pottery style found across western and central Europe at the end of the Neolithic that was initially hypothesized to have been spread by a genetically homogeneous population. The site was located on the summit of a spur. [103], Graves with Beaker artefacts have been discovered in the Brescia area, like that of Ca' di Marco (Fiesse), while in central Italy, bell-shaped glasses were found in the tomb of Fosso Conicchio (Viterbo).[104]. The study by Olalde et al. Most British beakers come from funerary contexts. Between 4,700-4,400 years ago, a new, bell-shaped pottery style spread across western and central Europe. However, analysis of grave furnishing, size and deepness of grave pits, position within the cemetery, did not lead to any strong conclusions on the social divisions. [98] The Beaker-culture declined in use around 2200–2100 BC with the emergence of food vessels and cinerary urns and finally fell out of use around 1700 BC. At present, no internal chronology for the various Bell Beaker-related styles has been achieved yet for Iberia. cultural package are both aspects of the Beaker phenomenon. Franco Nicolis. Since the mid-3rd Millennium BC the Bell Beaker phenomenon was spanning the vast area from Northwest Africa to the hearth of Carpathian Basin. Welcome to Anthrogenica, an independent community-funded, community-led discussion forum catering towards all aspects of anthropology and population & consumer genetics. [73] Instead, quite different customs predominated in the Irish record that were apparently influenced by the traditions of the earlier inhabitants. [51] A corded-zoned Maritime variety (C/ZM), proposed to be a hybrid between AOC and Maritime Herringbone, was mainly found in burial contexts and expanded westward, especially along the mountain systems of the Meseta. R1b and the Bell Beaker Phenomenon Ancient DNA analysis of two male skeletons from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker site of Kromsdorf, Germany showed they belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. In their large-scale study on radiocarbon dating of the Bell Beakers, J. Müller and S. Willingen established that the Bell Beaker Culture in Central Europe started after 2500 BC. In Almagro-Gorbea, M., Mariné, M. and Álvarez-Sanchís, J. R. (eds), A Test of Non-metrical Analysis as Applied to the 'Beaker Problem' – Natasha Grace Bartels, University of Albeda, Department of Anthropology, 1998, Male sizes range between 157 and 191 cm (62 and 75 in), to average 174 cm (69 in), comparable to the current male population: Flanagan 1998, p.116, Le grandi avventure dell'archeologia VOL. Beakers arrived in Britain around 2500 BC, with migrations of Yamnaya-related people, resulting in a near total turnover of the British population. [49] Two great coexisting and separate Central European cultures – the Corded Ware with its regional groups and the Eastern Group of the Bell Beaker Culture – form the background to the Late Copper Age and Early Bronze Age. Presumably Beaker culture spread from here to the remainder of Denmark, and to other regions in Scandinavia and northern Germany as well. This latter group overlapped with the Corded Ware Culture and other groups of the Late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. Yet, the Bell Beaker culture spread exactly the wrong way round, from Southwest Europe towards the east and north. It is characterised by its ‘beaker’-shaped vessels, which show regional variation in both manufacture and design. Typical to northern Jutland, however, cremations have been reported, also outside the Beaker core area, once within the context of an almost full Bell Beaker equipment. The latter comprise Veluwe and Epi-Maritime in Continental northwestern Europe and the Middle Style Beakers (Style 2) in insular western Europe. [101] It was used to turn copper into bronze from around 2200 BC and widely traded throughout Britain and into Ireland. 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